# PHP Program to Display The Boundary Elements of a Given Matrix

Here is a PHP program to display the boundary elements of a given matrix. Boundary elements are the outsider elements of a matrix. Here the elements are of minimum and maximum rows with minimum columns and maximum columns.

### The below is an example for boundary elements of a matrix given below:

```1	2	3	4	1	2	3	4
2	3	4	5  To   2			5
3	4	5	6	3			6
4	5	6	7	4	5	6	7```

Here there are 4 rows and 4 columns. So boundary elements will be of the first row and last row (here 4th row) with the first column and last column (here 4th column).

## PHP Program to Display The Boundary Elements of a Given Matrix

```<html>
<body>
<?php
echo "<b>The matrix is given below:-</b>"."<br>";
\$a=array(array());
\$rows=4;
\$cols=4;
for(\$i=0;\$i<\$rows;\$i=\$i+1)
{
for(\$j=0;\$j<\$cols;\$j=\$j+1)
{
\$a[\$i][\$j]=\$i+\$j+1;
echo \$a[\$i][\$j]." ";
}
echo "<br>";
}
echo "<b>The matrix with boundary elements is given below:-</b>"."<br>";//here <b></b>is using to define a text in bold style
for(\$i=0;\$i<\$rows;\$i=\$i+1)
{
for(\$j=0;\$j<\$cols;\$j=\$j+1)
{
if(\$i==0||\$i==\$rows-1||\$j==0||\$j==\$cols-1)
{
echo \$a[\$i][\$j]." ";
}
else
{
echo "&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp";
}
}
echo "<br>"; //here this is creating a new line
}
?>
</body>
</html>```

### Output:

```The matrix is given below:-
1 2 3 4
2 3 4 5
3 4 5 6
4 5 6 7
The matrix with boundary elements is given below:-
1 2 3 4
2     5
3     6
4 5 6 7```

Here we have created a 4*4 matrix with a statement (\$a[\$i][\$j]=\$i+\$j+1) and then displayed that matrix. After displaying the matrix, we have displayed the boundary elements with spaces of the original matrix based on a condition (here either \$i==0(row index number=0) or \$i==\$rows-1 or \$j==0 (column index number=0),\$j==\$cols-1). Here \$nbsp is creating a space.

Categories PHP